HIV has several periods. Two of them are symptomatic. This is the primary (acute) period and the stage of secondary diseases.
During the entire period of illness, a person remains infectious to others. Even during the incubation period, there is a small risk of infection. The most dangerous in this regard is the acute phase.
The likelihood of transmission of infection at this time is maximum. She is a little less in the stage of pre-AIDS and AIDS.
The lowest risk of infection is characteristic for the asymptomatic course of HIV. Because at this time, the lowest viral load on the body is observed. But the above is typical for an untreated disease. If an HIV patient receives antiretroviral therapy, he is almost not contagious.
The risk of transmission is extremely low. In the primary period, the most common symptom is an increase in body temperature.
In addition, 70% of patients have:
- signs of pharyngitis;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- rashes on the body.
In this regard, at the initial stage of HIV, patients are usually diagnosed with acute respiratory infections if they seek medical help. About half of patients complain of muscle weakness and muscle aches.
A third of patients complain of the following symptoms:
- abdominal pain;
Clinical signs that occur with a frequency of 10 to 15%:
- weight loss (a consequence of intoxication syndrome and dyspepsia);
- enlargement of the liver, which is determined by ultrasound, the spleen may also enlarge;
- neurological symptoms.
Candidiasis occurs in 12% of patients. Mainly the oral cavity is affected. The appearance of white discharge from the genitals is possible. Sometimes a primary viral lesion of the nervous system occurs.